Sulforaphane testosterone Reddit

As I recall, there are certain conditions and times when sulforaphane can act as a pro-oxidant rather than an anti-oxidant. I think this might be especially true if Inreasing 3aHSD expression with Sulforaphane and NMN may provide a powerfull treatment for Balding. News. Close. Vote. Posted by 5 minutes ago. Inreasing 3aHSD

Sulforaphane supplements giving me inflammtion - reddit

And if you do this right, there is a chance that you can even triple the sulforaphane found in your broccoli sprouts....do so by heating the broccoli sprouts at about Rhonda Patrick here. I've just released my most in-depth video EVER (months in the making) on a profoundly important plant compound: sulforaphane. I believe

Inreasing 3aHSD expression with Sulforaphane - reddit

11 months ago. Heating/cooking broccoli can break down the enzyme myrosinase, one of the precursors to sulforaphane. Fortunately, mustard powder has myrosinase, so if Sulforaphane fat soluble? Close. 1. Posted by 1 year ago. Archived. Sulforaphane fat soluble? I want to add coconut oil to my smoothie but unsure if my main focus

Search all of Reddit. Log In Sign Up. User account menu. 7. How much sulforaphane does 100 grams of broccoli seeds contain? Close. 7. Posted by 3 days ago. How much Dr Rhonda Patrick has recommended 40-60mg of sulforaphane daily. Does anyone know how much broccoli sprout I should be eating to hit that level of Purpose: Sulforaphane is a constituent of these foods postulated to harbor the anti-neoplastic activity based on multiple tumor models. Our own work demonstrates that

Potential Biohack using Sulforaphane and - reddit

Sulforaphane (SFN) increases the expression of DHT degrading enzymes, such as 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3α-HSDs), and, therefore, SFN treatment may improve r/tressless: Tressless is Reddit's most popular community for males and females coping with hair loss and balding. Feel free to discuss hair loss remedies 7) Asthma. Sulforaphane has had beneficial effects in animals with asthma and airway inflammation, but studies in humans are less conclusive [].Broccoli sprout extract However, this 10 mg/kg injection also reduced testosterone in the mice What Is the Clinically Effective Sulforaphane Dosage? At this moment in time, studies that The u/sulforaphane community on Reddit. Reddit gives you the best of the internet in one place

Rhonda Patrick here

reddit.com u/All4JP. comments; Want to join? Log in or sign up in seconds. | English; u/All4JP. 1,142 Karma. All4JP.com. limit my search to u/All4JP. use the following BOE and sulforaphane can even hinder the testosterone-induced inhibition of HaCaT cells viability. Moreover, BOE, glucosinlates, and sulforaphane can up-regulate

Is Sulforaphane over-hyped? : Supplements - reddi

  1. What is Sulforaphane? Sulforaphane is a potent natural compound that can be used in bodybuilding for several reasons. It is intriguing on several levels, to say the
  2. How natural supplements can shoot up your testosterone naturally without injection
  3. 4.1 How Low Cortisol Can Cause Hair Loss Too Much Testosterone Causes Hair Loss In Men. 5 Rite Aid Renewal Hair Regrowth Treatment Spray Sulforaphane Hair Loss
  4. Can Sulforaphane Boost Testosterone Laura H. February 16, 2021 ★★★ Can Sulforaphane Boost Testosterone When Do You Stop Gaining Weight On Testosterone Which
  5. Reddit; Abstract . di‐N‐butylphthalate (DBP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant used for plastic coating and in the cosmetics industry. It has toxic effects on
  6. 1.4m members in the manga community. Everything and anything manga! (manhwa/manhua is okay too!) Discuss weekly chapters, find/recommend a new
  7. Sulforaphane, a natural and beneficial cruciferous vegetable-derived isothiocyanate, increased the ability of parabens to disrupt fungal cell membranes

Sulforaphane fat soluble? : Nootropics - reddit

Sulforaphane (SFN) increases the expression of DHT degrading enzymes, such as 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3α-HSDs), and, therefore, SFN treatment may improve Androgenetic Alopecia. To determine the effects of SFN on hair growth, we administered SFN (10 mg/kg BW, IP) or vehicle (DMSO) to ob/ob mice for six weeks and examined hair regeneration and the plasma levels of testosterone and. The latter is a hormone that is a byproduct of testosterone and known to cause hair loss in men. Scientists from Tokyo Medical and Dental University tested sulforaphane on mice and have found out that it can really block the suppression of hair growth by that hormone. Can Sulforaphane Cure Cancer? The use of sulforaphane for cancer has been widely researched by scholars and experts. Most. Can Sulforaphane Boost Testosterone Laura H. February 16, 2021 ★★★ Can Sulforaphane Boost Testosterone When Do You Stop Gaining Weight On Testosterone Which Enzyme Is Responsible For The Conversion Of Testosterone To Estradiol Does Coconut Milk Increase Testosterone Testosterone Pills For Sale Nigeria Testosterone Replacement, Low T, HCG, & Beyond. Testosterone Basics & Questions . sulphorophane for cancer and longer healthspan. Thread starter Fernando Almaguer; Start date Mar 7, 2021; Tags cancer health and trt F. Fernando Almaguer Active Member. Mar 7, 2021 #1 Hi fellas, Wev'e started to grow broccoli sprouts at home and harvest them in 3-5 days. They grow without soil in mason jars with.

Testosterone And Nitric Oxide: Health: 1: Dec 4, 2019: Brain And Eyes Inflammation / Prolactin / Nitric Oxide: Mental Issues: 25: Nov 20, 2019: Hypoxia Causes Mast Cell Degranulation And Nitric Oxide Stops That: Scientific Studies: 12: Aug 31, 2019: Apple Cider Vinegar - Increases Nitric Oxide: Science: 6: Aug 17, 2019: Indole-3 carbinol and sulforaphane decreases the amount of the cancer stimulating estrogen, This minimizes prostate cancer stimulation by testosterone. Diindolylmethane (DIM) is usually produced from body fat after the ingestion of the glucosinolates that originate from the cruciferous vegetables. It helps in the prevention of the growth of estrogen-dependent tumors found in reproductive. Sulforaphane is only found in the Cruciferous or Brassica class of vegetables. These include kale, radishes, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, turnips, rutabaga, mustard greens, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, and a few others. When the greens of these vegetables are crushed or chewed, it causes a chem

Testosterone and DHT is mostly increased during the REM phase of sleep. With too little sleep, or bad quality sleep, adequate amounts of DHT is unable to be replenished. Here are a few tips to improve sleep: Sleep in a completely dark, quiet and cool room. Use blue light filters or blue light blocker glasses after sundown. Take time to relax at least one hour before bed (e.g. drink a cup of. Broccoli can also be called a natural defender of testosterone because it's loaded with phytochemicals known as indoles ( indole-3-carbinol -I3C ). This chemical actually helps decrease the estrogen by helping the body convert it to a different or safer form. And since estrogen competes with testosterone for bodily receptor sites, reducing it is a major key to raising and maintaining.

High testosterone (PCOS) You can enroll in the Estrogen Reset program here. 68 Comments. Hannah Dwyer on 08/14/21 at 4:28 am . Hey there, I'm currently taking pristiq for anxiety and panic. Can calcium D glucrate interfere with this med? X . Reply. Alexandra on 08/16/21 at 9:22 pm . Hi Hannah. Pristiq is not listed under the medications above, however you should talk with the health. Brocolli sprouts are higher in sulforaphane. You cannot cook it. Chewing it releases enzyme. However gut needs certain bacteria to convert it. So, no benefit if you take antibotics. Possibly, probiotics will help with conversion. If you freeze it, the enzyme decays shortly after thaw. Sulforaphane concentrates in bladder. Thus mechanism for bladder cancer and prostate. Lowers dht like 50%, or.

How much sulforaphane does 100 grams of broccoli seeds

DIM - Diindolylmethane is an androgen antagonist! DIM blocks the effects of testosterone. Higher doses (greater than 100mg) of isolated pure DIM can saturate tissues and block androgen (e.g. testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) receptors and inhibit the protein synthesis induced by the anabolic effects of androgens In the broccoli sprouts was observed a tendency of increase in the sulforaphane content with ranges of 336.32-1483.76 ug/g-1dry matter. Reply. wriga38 says: November 19, 2020 at 5:49 am. It is easy to say that there is more erucic acid in seeds compared to sprouts, so avoid seeds and eat sprouts. But the same is true of the glucosinolates and both substances are largely transferred to the.

Sulforaphane from Broccoli - 100% Natural 400 mcg 60 Veg Caps ($6.57) OncoPlus Max - 90 v-caps ($69.98) Where to Purchase Glucoraphanin. One maker of the supplement, Beneforté, offers the supplement, but you can't buy directly from their website. It seems that the best place to find this product is in specialty health stores. Some stores. Sulforaphane is an anti-cancer compound in cruciferous vegetables, mostly commonly credited to Broccoli. It appears to have general but potent antioxidant and possible anti-inflammatory actions, with the former similar to curcumin You are high in testosterone and you convert testosterone to estrogens. You need Phase 1 liver detoxification support (you probably know that yet, more on that below). #2 Sulforaphane Sulforaphane is a compound high in broccoli sprouts. It is a potent Phase II liver detox facilitator, acting on the sulfation pathway. Sulforaphane has also been linked to being anti-carcinogenic in estrogenic. Boost Testosterone Production With Steroids Which Organ Produces Testosterone And Estrogen. Supplements To Increase Testosterone In Males Reddit A Low Testosterone Level In Men Would Be Most Likely To Have Which Of The Following Effect Testosterone Booster Alopecia Spots Superfoods Boost Testosterone Pine Pollen. What Happens When Testosterone.

reddit: the front page of the interne

  1. Testosterone Booster For Men Amazon Gay Reddit How Does Testosterone Boosters Effects The Body What Activity Makes Testosterone. What To Take With Testosterone Enanthate Prescribed Nautral Male Enhancement Home Exercise To Increase Testosterone. Does D Limonene Increase Testosterone Levels How To Free Up Bound Testosterone After Stoping Testosterone How Many Weeks Untill
  2. Finally, sulforaphane also lowered inflammatory biomarkers in people with type 2 diabetes who were given broccoli sprout powder containing approximately 40 mg of sulforaphane for four weeks, reducing TNF-α, by 11% and lowering C-reactive Protein by 16%. I can tell you from my experience being involved in clinical trials with unhealthy people with metabolic syndrome, it is VERY hard to get.
  3. ★★★ Taking Testosterone Hair Falling Out What To Do Male Enhancement Pill Picture How To Testosterone Booster How Long To Notice Difference With Testosterone
  4. Stop wasting money on dubious supplements based on Dr. TV's daily sponsors, oversimplified news, or just plain flawed studies. We are fiercely against sponsorships and affiliations, and therefore, our staff members are contractually required to have zero industry ties.Our dedicated research team has compiled practical facts backed only by science
  5. What Can Increasing Testosterone In A Woman Do To Them Sulforaphane Increase Testosterone How Long Do I Stay On Testosterone. How Fast Does Testosterone Treatment Work Were To Bplaylong Male Enhancement What Will Boost Your Testosterone Immediately Pre Workout. Good Earth Male Enhancement How Does Testosterone Work In A Woman How To Make Testosterone Naturally. What Should Testosterone Be Put.
  6. Recovering from steroids Reddit. Yes. For sure. I'd 100% do it if: 1 I wasn't afraid of buying illegal drugs. 2 I wasn't worried about growing boobs or otherwise screwing up my endocrine system because i f'd something up. Basically, give me affordable,legal TRT under the supervision of someone who knows what they are doing, and I'd 100% be on that Hello, r/steroids:) So I had another question.

A phase II study of sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout

Sulforaphane promotes murine hair growth by accelerating

  1. , sulforaphane, coffee, green tea, polyphenols, and flavonoids. Nrf2 Side Effects. Although Nrf2 activation is very useful, sometimes it can be harmful and unwanted. In mice, constantly activated Nrf2 caused hyperkeratosis and death . Chronic Nrf2 activation in humans also prevents the anti-cancer effects to kick in.
  2. What Is Average Testosterone For Man In 50 Years Old Sulforaphane Increase Testosterone Which Rhino All Natural Male Enhancement Is The Best. What Is The Best Pct Product After Testosterone. King Size Pills Male Enhancement Best Ayurvedic Male Enhancement Pills In India Stretches That Increase Testosterone, Reddit How To Get Testosterone What Size Needle For Testosterone Shot How Long Would It.
  3. Reddit . Share on twitter. Twitter . Share on whatsapp. WhatsApp . Share on email . Email . It's not as glamorous as building muscle or improving performance, but fighting inflammation can mean a better overall quality of health and lifestyle. Inflammation is the body's response to physical stress, injury, and certain diseases. Short-term inflammation is healthy and a necessary part of the.
  4. Sulforaphane extends lifespan and healthspan in worms via insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling. sulforaphane aging-us.com. submitted 7 months ago by rhonda. view 1 comment | tweet this. 5. Supplemental magnesium ameliorates symptoms associated with heart failure. heart disease magnesium pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. submitted 7 months ago by rhonda. view 1 comment | tweet this. 2.

View You have no items in your shopping cart . Home; Sale. Links; Brands. 21st Century; A Vogel; Advanced Clinicals; ASDM Beverly Hill Cruciferous vegetables are rich in nutrients, including several carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin); vitamins C, E, and K; folate; and minerals.They also are a good fiber source. In addition, cruciferous vegetables contain a group of substances known as glucosinolates, which are sulfur-containing chemicals Enter your email to get our free mini-course on supplements. Examine is an independent educational organization that researches nutrition information - and nothing more. 100% backed by science, we take an independent and unbiased approach to figure out what works (and what's a waste of time and money) Broccoli-derived sulforaphane is one of the most promising phytochemicals for promoting good health and long life. Broccoli has garnered increasing attention as a way to promote longevity. As a greens supplement, it may benefit your health through: Activating NRF-2. This genetic pathway may promote longevity and protect from chronic conditions by fighting oxidative stress and [

Cancer is very complex and it's usually not just one thing that has gone wrong, said Emily Ho the study co-author. It's increasingly clear that sulforaphane is a real multi-tasker. The more we find out about it, the more benefits it appears to have. That's your cue to load up your plate with plenty of cauliflower, broccoli and. Sulforaphane and Its Effects on Cancer, Mortality, Aging, Brain and Behavior, Heart Disease & More. Isothiocyanates are some of the most important plant compounds you can get in your diet. In this video I make the most comprehensive case for them that has ever been made. Short attention span? Skip to your favorite topic by clicking one of the time points below. Full timeline below. Key sectio Product Name: GP Exemestane 25 mg Category: Antiestrogens Manufacturer: Geneza Pharmaceuticals Price: $34.00 Buy online: Legal Store Additional info: Click here Read full description: Click here >>OFFICIAL STORE<< [

Reddit - tressless - What does everyone think of

SelfHacked is dedicated to supporting your health journey by providing you with the most cutting-edge, evidence-based information. Join our community of health hackers today and start improving your wellness Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window) Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window) To boost the health of one of your favorite body parts and ensure it stays at its prime, you must.

7+ Sulforaphane Benefits (Broccoli Sprouts or Supplements

Unlike zinc, it doesn't figure prominently in the production of a sexy hormone like testosterone. And though you can take iodine and get an instant reaction from your thyroid, taking sulfur doesn't produce anything tangible. In short, sulfur lurks in the background and keeps a low profile. So why does Terry Wahls promote the consumption of three cups of sulfur-rich vegetables every day. GW Watson, et al. H3K9me3 attenuates sulforaphane-induced apoptotic signaling in PC3 prostate cancer cells, Oncogenesis, Volume 3, page e131, 2104. Je-Won Ko, So-Won Park, Na-Rae Shin, et al. Inhibitory effects of Pycnogenol®, a pine bark extract, in a rat model of testosterone propionate-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia, Lab Anim Res. 2018 Sep;34(3):111-117

Testosterone Rules in the Tokyo Olympics. On a related note, there is yet another controversy in regards to two Nambian female sprinters with male-like levels of testosterone. These runners (Beatrice Masilingi and Silver medalist Christine Mboma) have high testosterone levels and are classified as intersex. The official term to describe such athletes (who have XY sex chromosomes) is. However, an interesting thing to note here is, researchers have found no changes in the estrogen and testosterone levels in participants who reported increased libido. But, how maca increases libido is still not understood by researchers - studies are being conducted to understand this effect. 5. Boosts Overall Energy and Vitality: Red maca is used as a tonic to increase energy, vitality and.

The Complete Guide to Sulforaphane (And 10 Foods High in

Popular among biohacking communities, nicotinamide riboside (NR) increases the health of our mitochondria (the powerhouses of each cell) [1]. Similar to CoQ10 and PQQ, nicotinamide riboside supplements can boost both physical and cognitive function. NR has a preserving effect on neurons suggest neuroprotective capabilities [2] What Does Testosterone Feel Like Women Male Enhancement Pills Reddit Can Taking Testosterone Increase Blood Sugar. Foods That Increase Testosterone Level How To Build Testosterone Levels After 60 Naturally. Rhino Male Enhancement Dealers Lubbock. 1 Ml Of Testosterone Equals How Many Mg What Should 45 Year Old Male Take To Increase Testosterone Which Vacutainer Tubes For Testosterone And.

overview for sulforaphane - reddit

The Hairy Pill Cost and Side Effects. The monthly cost of 30 Hairy Pill capsules tablets is $75 for both males and females. You supposedly get personalized dosing and doctor consultations every 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and beyond. Sounds very professional, even though I would prefer them declaring the ingredients with full transparency Turmeric has been shown to increase Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), fight depression, improve cognition, focus and libido, and protect the brain from inflammation. And stands far above many modern medicines used to treat neurodegenerative diseases like depression, Alzheimer's and stroke

[Cosplay] Hane Ame 雨波 - Nami (One Piece) : u/All4J

  1. Reddit; Wechat; Abstract. The higher utilization of fruits and vegetables is well known to cure human maladies due to the presence of bioactive components. Among these compounds, thymoquinone, a monoterpene and significant constituent in the essential oil of Nigella sativa L., has attained attention by the researchers due to their pharmacologies perspectives such as prevention from cancer.
  2. Low Level of Testosterone. Also known as Low T, this cause is common among older people. As a person ages, the level of testosterone also decreases. This does not mean no penile sensation at all. However, there is less sensitivity and pleasure during sex. Aside from feeling numbness in the penis, a person with Low T can experience, irritability, difficulty having an orgasm or less.
  3. ute). Magnesium oxide, orotate, taurate, malate, glyconite, carbonate, and chloride forms can't make the same claim
  4. utes, 40-50% after ten
  5. I was not planning to write a new post on finasteride anytime soon. However, the latest news from South Korea is highly interesting and cannot be ignored. Researchers have successfully tested finasteride injections as a new potential treatment for hair loss. They have developed a unique finasteride-loaded microspheres delivery system for these injections
  6. This one linked endotoxins to low testosterone and hypogonadism. Lastly, researchers in this study tied endotoxin production to diabetes. Researchers blocked the endotoxin receptors in this study and reverse type 1 diabetes . Name a disease and you can tie it back to endotoxins. What's clear is that our overall picture of disease is myopic and most doctors are ill equipped to handle the.
  7. So testosterone should not improve substantially, if sex hormones are upstream of any antiaging effect. Yet, I have experienced substantially higher testosterone, even ten years later. If anything, it should drop. So the antiaging interventions appear to increase testosterone, and not the other way around. Therefore, my conclusion is that your claim that hormones are upstream of.

Brassica oleracea extract, glucosinlates, and sulforaphane

  1. [man king pills] Tips To Erectile Dysfunction - 大中华超市 2020 Update Tips To Erectile Dysfunction. Coincidentally, when Jessica escaped, Annie finally Tips To Erectile Dysfunction met Duan Hongyu s requirements.At the same time, Symptoms Vomiting Headache Bloatedness Erectile Dysfunction I Maxoderm Male Enhancement Cream Scam found that the two kilometers above the Tips To Erectile.
  2. Raw or aged garlic reliably reduces total cholesterol and Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL-C), while increasing High-density Lipoprotein (HDL-C). Garlic also provides a variety of anti-cancer properties. Eating garlic daily (10g or more) is associated with a significantly reduced risk of prostate, colon, and stomach cancer
  3. Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details. If using boswellia serrata resin itself, doses can increase up to 1,800 mg taken thrice a day (5,400 mg daily), but are usually in the range of 800-1,200 mg taken thrice a day to total a daily dose of 2,400-3,600 mg. Within this range benefits appear to be dose-dependent

What you can do during the fasting window to support the effectiveness of the fast is drink some black coffee, green tea, apple cider vinegar, get enough electrolytes, move around, and do light exercise. Check out this article about what breaks a fast. I recommend everyone to fast for at least 3-5 days for at least 3-4 times a year Standard Scalar Sessions (paid yearly) $1,397/Year (1 person) 1 Person and/or Pet: $3.83 per day. 2 People and/or Pets: $2.74 per person per day. 3 People and/or Pets: $2.37 per person per day. 4 People and/or Pets: $2.05 per person per day. 5 People and/or Pets: $2.01 per person per day

Astragalus membranaceus is an important herb in traditional Chinese medicine.It has been used in a wide variety of herbal blends and 'natural' remedies, including Dang-gui buxue tang, which is Astragalus membranaceus paired with Angelicae Sinensis.. Astragalus membranaceus has been researched for its cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and longevity effects Reddit; Wechat; Abstract. Scope . Observational studies have associated consumption of cruciferous vegetables with reduced risk of prostate cancer. This effect has been associated with the degradation products of glucosinolates—thioglycosides that accumulate within crucifers. The possible role of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide, a metabolite that also accumulates in cruciferous vegetables, and.

Liposomal Sulforaphane: Useful Bodybuilding Weapon

Glucosinolates—which produce sulforaphane when damaged, as in chewing—are transformed by enzymes present in the plant and in intestinal bacteria into isothiocyanates, which are chemicals that block the development of cancer cells, as later studies from Talalay's group described. His findings received wide attention in the news media. Although the value of eating plenty of fruits and. Oxidopamine (6-hydroxydopamine) - A toxic oxidation product of dopamine Although Adderall confers clear clinical benefits in patients with ADHD, Adderall neurotoxicity is well-documented. Specifically, Adderall is neurotoxic to the dopaminergic system. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that regulates reward, pleasure, motivation, and muscular tone. Adderall improves attention by eliciting. The extract delivers higher doses of broccoli into your body, which means the health benefits are magnified. According to the USDA National Nutrient Database, one cup of chopped broccoli (one serving, or about 90 grams) contains 31 calories with 6 grams of carbohydrates, 2 grams of sugar, 2 grams of fiber, 3 grams of protein, and 0 grams of fat RHR: The Powerful Health Benefits of Sulforaphane. In this episode of RHR, we discuss the benefits of sulforaphane, one of the most potent compounds used to upregulate our body's internal detoxification system. Last updated on August 3, 2021. RHR: Treating GI Conditions with Functional Medicine, with Dr. Ken Brown . In this episode of Revolution Health Radio, Dr. Ken Brown shares how he uses.

testosterone reddit - YouTub

In 1992, researchers at Johns Hopkins discovered robust anti-cancer properties of a broccoli compound called sulforaphane. Thirty years later oncologists remain in the dark about this plant compound. A unique delivery system enables higher levels of sulforaphane to enter the bloodstream Supplements: A scorecard. April 1, 2012. Dietary supplements are wildly popular. About 114 million Americans — roughly half the adult population — take at least one supplement, running up a collective tab of over $28 billion in 2010 alone. It's easy to see why supplements are such big sellers Laser Hair Removal Hormone Therapy Dallas Anti Aging Testosterone Gene Therapy Anti Aging Best Affordable Anti Aging Serum 2019 Emmenince Anti Aging. Amazon Best Anti Aging Face Cream What S The Best Anti Aging Face Cream Olay Anti Aging Foaming Face Wash. Anti Aging Makeup Shark Tank 7 Anti Aging Angels Lift Firm Anti Aging Skin Device Bundle For Neck Face Best Facial Serums For Anti Aging Thuốc cường dương dành cho người lớn tuổi đã và đang được săn lùng rầm rộ thời gian gần đây. Vậy mua loại nào thì tốt? Dưới đ